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Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is the commonest sexually transmitted disease (STD) in Australia. Infection is an important reproductive health problem as 10-30% of infected women develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Around 9% of sexually active young women are likely to be infected and around 70% of infections are asymptomatic and so, are liable to remain undetected, putting women at risk of developing PID.

Screening for genital chlamydia infection may reduce pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. 

Screening can be done from a urine test (first catch urine not midstream) or a genital swab and is done by nucleic acid amplification which is where the laboratory uses a sensitive test to look for genetic material from the organism.