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Widespread population screening is not currently recommended in Australia. The Australian Guidelines recommend targeting those most at risk, i.e. those most likely to benefit from intervention. This is determined by the presence of known risk factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, familial hypercholesterolaemia, obesity/overweight, a family history of early heart disease, aboriginal or Torres Strait islander ethnicity, high blood cholesterol (high total and high LDL), or low HDL cholesterol.

Assessment is best done by a lipid profile, a blood test conducted after a 9- to 12-hour fast, which determines your total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.