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Physiotherapy and exercise are vital. They are particularly effective in preventing long term stiffness.

Many patients use NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) which are painkillers similar to ibuprofen or aspirin. Other important treatments include immune suppressants such as methotrexate or sulfasalazine. Newer drugs include bisphosphonates and TNF (tumour necrosis factor) inhibitors such as Etanercept and Infliximab and agents that affect the IL-17 pathway such as secukinumab.

Last Review Date: December 26, 2016