Laboratory scientists and technicians perform most testing. Some scientists in large laboratories specialise in a particular area. For instance, some can be morphologists, observing cells and cell patterns through the microscope; others can work with technical equipment, such as flow cytometry where they need to be able to set parameters and read results. Others, work with the very latest technologies and assays such as such as fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) investigating chromosomes and DNA.
Scientists have university degrees in laboratory science and some have higher degrees such as a Masters or PhD. Technicians usually have a diploma in laboratory techniques.
Senior scientists often assume considerable managerial responsibilities and they may have a postgraduate qualification in management as well as their scientific qualifications.