Endocrine system and syndromes

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Table of Endocrine Glands

This table includes a listing of endocrine glands, the hormones they produce, and the diseases and conditions associated with their improper function.
Endocrine gland Location/ descriptionHormones gland produces Gland/ hormone functionExamples of disorders associated with improper function
Lower middle of the brain Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Prolactin Inhibitory Factor (PIF, dopamine)
Communicates with both nervous and endocrine systems;
Stimulates (GHRH, TRH, CRH, GnRH) or inhibits (PIF) hormone production in the pituitary
Precocious puberty (early GnRH production);
Kallman syndrome (inadequate GnRH production);
Thyroid diseases
Oxytocin Uterine contraction during labour  
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiurectic hormone (ADH) Water balance Diabetes insipidus (inadequate AVP production)
Pituitary Below hypothalamus, behind sinus cavity Prolactin Milk production Hypopituitarism
Empty Sella syndrome
Galactorrhoea (milk production not during pregnancy due to high prolactin)
Growth hormone (GH) Bone growth

Acromegaly or Gigantism (excess GH)
Growth Hormone
Deficiency (GHD)


Stimulates cortisol Cushing's syndrome (excess ACTH)
TSH Stimulates thyroid hormone Hyperthyroidism
LH, FSH Regulation of testosterone and oestrogen, fertility Loss of menstrual period
Loss of sex drive
Thyroid Butterfly-shaped; lies flat against windpipe in the throat T4 (thyroxine)
T3 (triiodothyronine)
Helps regulate the rate of metabolism Thyroid diseases (including hypo & hyperthyroidism)
Calcitonin Helps regulate bone status, blood calcium  
Parathyroid 4 tiny glands located behind, next to, or below the thyroid Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Regulates blood calcium Hyperparathyroidism
Adrenal 2 triangular organs, on top of each kidney Adrenaline
Blood pressure regulation, stress reaction Phaeochromocytoma (MEN2)
Aldosterone Salt & water balance Conn’s syndrome
Cortisol Stress reaction Cushing’s syndrome
Addison’s disease
DHEA-S Body hair development at puberty Cancer
Adrenal hyperplasia
(females only)
2 located in the pelvis Oestrogen
Female sexual characteristics Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
(males only)
2 located in the groin Testosterone Male sexual characteristics Hypogonadism
Pancreas Large, gourd-shaped gland, located behind the stomach Insulin
Glucose regulation Diabetes mellitus
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Pineal Lower side of the brain Melatonin Not well understood;
Helps control sleep patterns, affects reproduction